عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Iran is a large country with a vast variety of tribes and ethnic groups. These various tribes are unified with a national language and culture while using their own local languages and enriching ethnic art forms. Among Iranian ethnic groups, the Turkmen are remarkable for their art of carpet weaving which has a unique structure compared to other designs and textures. The charming motifs on Turkmen carpets are indicator of the customs and beliefs of the carpet weavers and appear in geometrical, floral and animal shapes. This paper focuses on animal motifs in these handicrafts, identifying animal parts and discussing their significance and symbolism. A better appreciation of these artistic creations is definitely facilitated by understanding the language of designs and motifs.
The aim of this study is to identify the animal motifs of Turkmen carpets and gather them in an illustrated collection to aid researchers and producers of these genuine artworks. Such an attempt can help to revive and elevate these traditional designs, hence the preservation of national identity. The findings of this research show that the animal motifs in Turkmen carpets can be divided into two groups of pre-Islam and post-Islamic periods. In the pre-Islamic phase, the motifs are basically those representing good and evil as well as forces of nature. These motifs are mingled with religious teachings in post-Islamic period, as a result of which parts of animal body replaced a representation of the whole form. The materials of this research are based on archive study and data collection and are presented in a historical-descriptive manner.