عنوان مقاله [English]
During the different periods of the contemporary history of Tehran, the volumes and urban sculptures of the squares have always had the characteristics that the discovery of what and why their presence in the urban space can help the aesthetic reading of the works. The first step in facilitating these readings and analyzes is the typology of the sculptures of each period based on their form and shape and function. The main goal of the current research is to investigate urban sculptures from the perspective of aesthetics (formology) and function. This research is considered practical in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the current research is the sculptures and urban elements of Tehran during the 80s and 90s (219 sculptures). 20 samples have been selected for analysis.
By examining and typifying the works in the 80s and 90s, it can be said that the types of non-figurative sculptures include a variety of works, which can be divided into subgroups of architectural volumes, volumes of Geometric and written volumes. Figurative human sculptures are also classified into real and imaginary subgroups. Imaginary sculptures include works that, despite the human form, do not have an example in reality and are made based on mental imaginations. In the 80s, the largest number of statues belong to imaginary statues (celebrities), but in the 90s, we are faced with the spread of real statues of scientific figures and martyrs of the Islamic Revolution and war. The results indicate that in the 80s and 90s, most of the sculptures were figurative. Also, the main functions of these urban sculptures include raising the level of society's awareness (transmitting cultural and religious concepts and values), creating visual beauty, giving identity to a place, inducing a sense of place, evoking special events, retelling culture and showing religious affiliations. and value, strengthening and intensifying the centrality of the square, giving meaning to the naming of the square or place, creating an urban sign and symbol, and creating a sense of belonging and peace.