عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Shape is regarded as one of outward characteristics of Islamic seals. This characteristic, which is part of common traits of all different areas of seal studies, could be defined as framework of circumference of seals impression on written materials and documents, which in fact results from the shape of seals surfaces. Shape has been considered as one of the ways of recognizing the administrative validity of documents seals and its application, at least, in official seals has followed specific rules. Based on historical descriptive approach and desk studies, this essay deals with the role of the shape of seals in terming and typology of Islamic seals, as well as its evolution in late Islamic seals.
The results indicate that although the shapes of late Islamic seals differ from each other through various periods, but the variety of shapes of administrative and official seals can be delimited and confined to basic geometric shapes. Thus, the main shape of Ilkhanid to Jalayirid rulers’ and dignitaries’ seals is that of rectangular and polygonal, Timurid’s and Turkmanan’s is circular, and Safavid seals are square and circular with additional small parts known as Taj or Kolahak. The shape of post-Safavid seals has been gone through a main change that is the predominance of the taste for square instead of circle.
This limitation, on the one hand, is due to administrative rules considering construction of seals and, on the other, refers to evolution of writing script and composition in these seals.